What Have I learned so far from English Grammar 3 Class and -How It is Useful for us to be an English Teacher
First of all, I want to introduce myself. My name is Mery Cris Natalia and now I study at State University of Jakarta and take English Education Major. I am at the 3rd semester and I take 19 credits. One of my subjects is English Grammar 3. My lecturer names is ms.Leony. I like this course because it can help me the grammatical rules and increase my ability in English. I also like lecturer because she explain the material briefly and always ask her students whether they understand or not.
So far, I have learned half of materials in this course. First, I have learned about synthesis and sentence construction. The main meaning is the joining together of parts so as to form a whole. It involves joining a number of short sentences or expressions together to form one or more longer sentences. It is useful to help us not to write many very short sentences, give chances for us to learn about and practice ways of joining shorter statements, and also help you to practice in the use of conjunctions and other joining words. In this topic, I also learned about the meaning of simple, compound and complex sentences.
a) A simple sentence contains only one finite verb, e.g. Exhausted by the climb, Peter sat down to rest.
b) A complex sentence consists of two or more main clauses or statements, each contaning a finite verb and neither being dependent on the other. E.g. I saw him walking to school but he did not notice me.
c) A complex sentence consists of any number of main clauses but it is also contains one or more dependent (or subordinate) clauses which will not make complete sense by themselves, e.g. The car which he borrowed from his uncle was badly damaged when he ran off the road and hit a tree. ( The three dependent statement are in italics; the main one is the car was badly damaged)
After that,I also learned about joining main clauses or statement. I studied how to join sentence with conjunctions and other joining words. I studied about;
Ø Relative pronouns → uses pronouns to connect the dependent clause to the independent clause. The relative pronouns are who, whom, which, that, and whose. E.g. I saw the man whom you talked about yesterday.
Ø Although and though→ uses to express unexpected results and introduces an adverb clause. E.g. Although it was rain, I decided to go to Bandung.
Ø Because→ introduces a dependent clause which should not be punctuated as a separate sentence,
Ø e.g. I did not go to campus because my mother was sick yesterday.
Ø Since → followed by a definite date or point in time which answer the question ‘when?’, e.g. She lived in Tangerang since 1989. And
Ø for→ followed by a length of time which answers the question ‘for how long?’,
Ø e.g. He went to Australia for 2 years.
Ø So that→ use to show the purposes of an action, e.g. He lent me some money so that I can bought a new book.
Ø So→ often shows the consequences of an action or situation, e.g. I was late so I did not follow the mid term test.
Ø Before, after, until→ can be used to introduce a time expression, e.g. My mother went to Surabaya before I came back.
Ø If and unless (unless = if……not)
Ø e.g. If I were you, I will take that university.
Ø During→ usually followed by a noun or pronoun with which it makes a phrase and does not contain a verb,
e.g. I watched thriller movie during my rest time. And while→ usually starts a clause which contain a finite verb, e.g. The phone rang while we were eating.
Second topic is Non defining and defining relative clauses. Non defining clause is not giving any definition that put together between two commas so the reader know that it is not very important and skip it because it is just additional information. The meaning of the the main clause remains exactly the same weather we include the clause or not. For example, The Prime Minister’s reshuffle means that the cabinet, which now has twenty members, will reduced to twenty. In addition, defining relative clause define something. If it is refers to subject, it can not be omitted, and if it is refers to object, it can be omitted or we can omit the relative clause. For example, The new houses they are building in our road are just like square boxes.
Third, I studied about verb patterns with -ing form and infinitives. Both gerund (verb +ing) and the infinitive can function as nouns standing alone, or they can operate as verbs in non-finite noun clauses.
Gerund can function as a noun. On the whole, the gerund is more readily identifiable with a noun than the infinitive is. The gerund may stand alone as the subject of a verb, e.g. Swimming is his favourite hobby.
There are two particularly confusing verb phrases, used to and to be used to. Used to + infinitive refers to habitual action in the past, and used to can not be followed by a noun (or a gerund). For example, When I was a child, I used to play with a doll.
If a verb follows to be used to, therefore the gerund form must be used. To be used to suggests familiarity through a repetition of the activity or occurrence; it does not state the existence of habit such as, e.g. I am used to seeing on his bad action he does.
There are so many verbs that may be followed by the gerund, like admit, grudge, pardon, it is no good, etc, but there are notes to remember in gerund:
v The verbs; acknowledge, admit, fancy, imagine, may also be followed by a noun + to be or to have,
e.g. - The Minister acknowledged that the reports were substantially correct.
- The Minister acknowledged the reports to be substantially correct.
v The gerund after stop indicates the cessation of an activity, e.g. He stopped smoking for his health. ( i.e. He did not smoke anymore.)
Stop may be followed by an infinitive— an infinitive of purpose,
e.g. He stopped to smoke a cigarette.
v Suggest raises special problem when followed by a ‘that’ clause, e.g. I suggest that she should see a doctor immediately.
And verb followed by an infinitive. It is necessary first to distinguish two important patterns:
i. I offered to help ( S × V × infinitive)
ii. I invited him to come (S × V × noun × infinitive)
There are groups that follow only pattern (i), then only follow pattern (ii), and that can follow either pattern (i) or (ii).
1) There are verbs in this group that the infinitive without a preceding noun is used after this verbs.This group follow (i) pattern. There are verbs that can be followed by a clause introduce by that, such as, afford, appear, bother, happen, promise, chance, seem, volunteer, fail, etc.
Note: The verbs appear, chance, happen, and seem may be followed by a ‘that’
clause only when they have the subject it.
e.g. It appeared that everyone understood my explaination.
2) A noun + infinitive is used after these verbs, such as accustom, command, compel, direct, entreat, get, implore, instruct, order, persuade, remind, require, teach, trust, warn, oblige etc.
Notes: a) The verbs command, direct, entreat, implore, order,require consist of
noun that is found between this verbs and a ‘that’ clause. e.g. The commander ordered that his troops should lay down their
b) The verb persuade and remind, a noun is always found between these
verbs and a ‘that’ clause,
e.g. - He persuade me to change my plan.
- He persuade me that my plan is bad.
c) The verbs instruct, teach ,and warn, a noun is optional between these
verbs and a that’ clause,
e.g. -The Chancellor warned Unions not to press for higher wages.
- The Chancellor warned that higher wages would mean higher
d) The verbs compel, force, and obligate, Make is roughly synonymous
with these verbs, but is followed;
(i) in the active, by a noun + infinitive without to, e.g. He made me do all
the work again.
(ii) in the passive, by an infinitive with to,e.g. I was made to do all the
e) Get may also be followed by an object + past participle
E.g. You should get your passport renewed.
3) The infinitive, with or without a preceding noun, is used after this verbs, such as ask, beg, choose, dare, desire, elect, expect, help, mean, request, want, and wish.
Notes : a. The verbs ask, beg, desire, expect, request,and wish No noun is
found between these verbs and a ‘that’ clause.
b. If no noun is used after dare, two patterns are possible :
* the infinitive with to, e.g He dared to call me a fool to my face.
* the infinitive without to ( more especially in negative and interrogative
sentences) e.g. He daren’t tell me what happened.
c. Help may be followed by the infinitive with or without to :
E.g. Everyone helped (me) (to) clean the place up.
And also verbs followed by the gerund or infinitive, such as advise, attempt, can’t bear, decline, forbid, hate, neglect, permit, prefer, regret, require, need, and so on.
Notes : 1. After some verbs, the choice may be determined by considerations of
style rather than meaning,
e.g. It is just starting to rain (NOT starting raining).
2. With many of the verbs expressing feelings or attitudes (like, love,
prefer, hate, etc) the distinction between gerund and infinitive
corresponds to the distinction general versus particular, e.g. I like
looking the view of beach.
Actually, I have learned the materials in the previous course, like conjunction and gerund and infinitives. But in this course, it is more complicated than before and so many additional rules and exception.I have not know well or good understanding about gerund and infinitive, especially when we must use gerund and when to use infinitive.But I will try to memorize the verbs that are used in gerund and/or infinitives.
Finally, I think this course is very useful for me to be a good English teacher because as a teacher we must know the rules and exception in English grammar so it can develop my ability in writing, speaking, and reading. And I hope this class will be interesting and my friend and I not feel boring like before so it can help me to reach my goal,hopefully.