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How Can a Minority Language be Maintained in Mayority Communities

June 7, 2010

Just as human beings possess a great capacity to acquire language, they also have a capacity for losing it. Although some individuals have experienced language loss or attrition as a result of a head wound, stroke, or other source of brain damage, many more have lost language skills through lack of a linguistically appropriate social environment in which to use them. Instances include: a speaker of a language who lives in an environment in which another language is considered more socially useful; a speaker of a language who moves to a country where a different language is spoken and, as a result, gradually loses his or her first language; and a student who has learned a second language in school and loses it through lack of opportunity to practice the skills acquired. Language acquisition and maintenance depend on instructional factors, relating to the way in which the language is initially acquired; cultural factors, relating to the status and usefulness of the language in a particular society; and personality factors, relating to individual characteristics of the speaker. There are certain factors seem to retard wholesale language shift for minority language group, at least for a time. 1. Where language is considered an important symbol of minority group’s identity, for example the language is likely to be maintained longer. For instance, Polish people have regarded language as very important for preserving their identity in the many countries they have migrated to, and they have consequently maintained Polish for three to four generations. 2. If families from a minority group live near each other and see each other frequently, this also helps them maintain their language. For instance, Bataknese people who live in Jakarta or other big cities, belong to a common church, HKBP (Huria Kristen Batak Protestan), where Batak is used. 3. The degree and frequency of contact with the homeland may contribute to language maintenance for those who emigrate. The prospect of regular trips back home provides a similar motivation to maintain fluency for many groups. For example, a minority group like Javanese people, who live in the big city, Jakarta, tend to return home when holidays with their families so they can maintained their language. 4. Where the normal family organization for an ethnic group is the extended family with grandparents and unmarried relatives living in the same house as the nuclear family. There is a good reason to continue using the minority language at home. And marriage to a majority group member is the quickest way of ensuring shift to the majority group language for children. 5. Obviously a group who manage to ensure their language is used settings, for example their place of worship will increase the chances of language maintained. For instance, Bataknese people in Jakarta attend church services in Batak. 6. Institutional support generally makes the difference between success and failure in maintaining a minority group language. The minority group which can mobilize these institutions to support language maintenance has some chance of succeeding. When the government of a country is committed to maintaining or reviving a language, it is possible to legislate for its use in all these domains, as happened in Israel with Hebrew.

a NewPoetry for Literature Subject

June 2, 2010

You come to my home
With all of our flowery memories
You come in my darkness
I don’t why
It makes me want to cry loudly

You brought your power like hero
You brought your love
You brought your responsibility, too
But you also brought your mystery like puzzle

Mystery that cannot be expected
Came when I was not ready
But you went and went happily
Without coming again to enter my home

Why you do this to me?
You who is always ready to help me
When I am sad and happy
Strong and weak
I need you in my life
But you just look and smile at me from the white place

I think you have done the best in your country
Although we know in short period of time
But I believe that you have peace in your place
Just want to keep you in my heart
Because missing you make me get a diamond in my life

listening lesson plan to children

April 20, 2010

The topic : happy birthday

The aim : student are able to tell about their experience in childhood.

Level of the learners : for beginners students

Type : conversation

Pre-listening

  1. What activities do people do at a birthday party in your childhood?
  2. what traditional foods do people prepare and eat at birthday party?
  3. Have you ever celebrate your birthday?
  4. What is the unforgettable gifts in your birthday?

Listening activities.

Listen to the conversation. And answer the question correctly.

1. What is the boy’s name?

A. Matthew

B. Michael

C. Mitchell

2. How old is the boy turning in the conversation?

A. seven

B. eight

C. nine

3. What does he want to do first?

A. play outdoor games

B. open presents

C. eat cake and ice cream

4. Which statement is true about the game at the party?

A. You have to catch a large ball without dropping it.

B. You need to chase children around and touch them.

C. You need to hide somewhere so no one can find you.

5. Who is coming to the party?

A. aunts, grandparents, and cousins

B. grandparents, cousins, and uncles

C. friends, cousins, and grandparents

Post-Listening Exercises

  1. Write down your favourite birthday party that you ever had and what made it special to you? Did you eat any special foods? What presents did you receive?
  2. Share with your friends about your writing in front of the class.

3.  Now ask your friends and family and write their names

JANUARY FEBRUARY MARCH APRIL
MAY JUNE JULY AUGUST
SEPTEMBER OCTOBER NOVEMBER DECEMBER

The topic : happy birthday

The aim : student are able to tell about their experience in childhood.

Level of the learners : for beginners students

Type : conversation

Phraphrasing paragraph and quote

April 19, 2010
u Paragraph
The prime objective of suggestopedia is to tap into more of students’ mental potential to learn, in order to accelerate the process by which they learn to understand and use the target language for communication.
(from  ht
tp://www.englishraven.com/method_suggest.html)
The main or important objective of Suggestopedia is to gain the maximum potential of the learners to study, so they can accelerate the process easily by which they study to acknowledge and communicate with the target language.
u quote
Life is an opportunity, benefit from it. Life is a beauty, admire it. Life is a dream, realize it. Life is a challenge, complete it. Life is a game, play it. Life is a promise, fulfill it. Life is a sorrow, overcome it. Life is a song, sing it. Life is a struggle, accept it. Life is a tragedy, confront it. Life is an adventure, dare it. Life is a luck, make it. Life is a life, fight for it.
The author wants the reader to get the advantages if life is a chance, proud of it as a magnificence, conscious it if it’s a dream, finished it as an advanced,  play it like a game, accomplish it like an assurance, deal with it if it’s a bother, sing it like a song, fight to get it, face it as a tragic, gamble it like an adventure, succeed it and never give for life.
(immensity of the sea— Antonie De Saint Exupery)

Phraphrasing paragraph and quote
u Paragraph
The prime objective of suggestopedia is to tap into more of students’ mental potential to learn, in order to accelerate the process by which they learn to understand and use the target language for communication.
(from  ht

tp://www.englishraven.com/method_suggest.html)

The main or important objective of Suggestopedia is to gain the maximum potential of the learners to study, so they can accelerate the process easily by which they study to acknowledge and communicate with the target language.
u quote
Life is an opportunity, benefit from it. Life is a beauty, admire it. Life is a dream, realize it. Life is a challenge, complete it. Life is a game, play it. Life is a promise, fulfill it. Life is a sorrow, overcome it. Life is a song, sing it. Life is a struggle, accept it. Life is a tragedy, confront it. Life is an adventure, dare it. Life is a luck, make it. Life is a life, fight for it.

The author wants the reader to get the advantages if life is a chance, proud of it as a magnificence, conscious it if it’s a dream, finished it as an advanced,  play it like a game, accomplish it like an assurance, deal with it if it’s a bother, sing it like a song, fight to get it, face it as a tragic, gamble it like an adventure, succeed it and never give for life.
(immensity of the sea— Antonie De Saint Exupery)

How to Improve our Motivation Fastly

February 1, 2010

The way you want to improve your motivation is depends on how you can reflect it to your life. There is no one can improve your motivation in your activites,,just you yourself can do that. There are some tips for you to improve your motivation in your life.

first way about how to improve your motivation is with spirit. You must have spirit in your jorney so you will get how it is easy to live. With spirit, you just want to do your job or work positively and happily. And also you will get many friends un your life if you have good spirit and be attractive.

second tip for you to improve your motivation in life is keep fighting. Whatever problems you have, you must solve it with yourself and tryn to learn from your experience. never give up and have a commitment in your life is good. And try to share with your friends if you have problem that you can not solve by yourself. It will help you to get more optional to choose.

And the last way for you to increase your motivation is keep praying. God always with you and blessed you in your life. Whatever your religion, we have the same God and power. Just walk with our God and you will get happiness.

Improving The Motivation for Learning English

January 21, 2010

Today, I am going to talk about improving the motivation for learning English, the language that we study now. Have you ever feel bored when you learn English? That can influences all aspects of our learning processes. Late is better than nothing. That sentence always make me motivated when I read. What action should be taken to improve our motivation in learning English?
Now, I will share to you about what ways we can do to boost our motivation in learning English as a foreign language.
First action is imagine yourself.Imagine you can talk to native speakers just like you talk in your first language. Imagine other people wanting to speak English as well as you do. Imagine the possibility of writing e-mail to people from all over the world. And imagine you can be a good English teacher in a school. Your imagination is good as your internal motivation. You should know that it is possible to learn English really well. Just look at other people who have done it.
Second action is remember that you are already good. You already know some English (like listen, read, and speak English right now) That’s a big success! Now it’s time for more successes. Time to start using powerful methods of effective learning. Time to gain an impressive knowledge of English.
Third action, remember that there is a lot you do not know.You are good, but your English probably isn’t perfect. You probably can’t understand English-language TV, read books in English, talk to native speakers easily, write essays without mistakes, etc. You should never think your English is perfect. Even if you are the best student in your class, always try to find your weak areas and work on them. And try to make corrections of your mistakes to avoid from bad habits.
Fourth action, use your English whenever you can.This is very, very important. The more you use English, the more you will want to learn it.
Because English is so popular, you can use it everywhere. You can use Google to find English-language websites with interesting information, you can watch American movies, you can play adventure games on your computer, you can read interesting books in English.If you do these things, you will not only have fun and learn English.So you will learn English more, use it more, learn it more, use it more… If you also use effective learning methods, your English will grow faster than you can imagine.
And the last action, remember that learning English requires action. One small action is more powerful than reading hundreds of articles. Yes, we know it is very hard to do things, even if they are good for us. We humans are lazy creatures. That is why not many people speak English well. Not only read about with but also do the best in our learning process.
We, as the foreign language learners, need to do the best in our English learning method. The external motivation is not enough unless you have a good internal motivation in you study. Do not satisfy with the knowledge that you have already got, but keep study and study. You will be successful only if you change something about your life. Don’t put it off. Begin now.
thanks for your attention.

Using Technology in Improving Student Listening Ability

December 30, 2009

1) How is technology useful to teach listening?

a. Technology is useful to teach listening because each type of technology provides opportunities for students to explore their ranges of listening strategies. And it allows for more emphasis on certain aspects, such as cross-cultural, interactional, critical, and contextual dimensions of listening, to be developed. Technology also makes learning process of listening more entertaining.

( Source: Second Language Listening : Theory and Practice. John Flowerdew Page:182)

b. Using media, for example radio, could be an effective way to develop students’ listening skills and build up student confidence in listening since they did not have sufficient access to native speakers.

(Source: Taken from Forum Magazine in Listening volume 35 number  2, April 1997 Pages 47-48 Article: Using VOA News item by                       Ho Xiooqiong)

2) What kinds of media that we can use to improve listening skill?

There are various kinds of media that we can use to teach listening. They are:

a. Radio

Listening to the radio is one of the most accessible ways a learner has of developing listening skills. Listening to the radio is not an activity that is often used in class time. Perhaps, this is because radio, listening can be done only in real time and the scheduling of language classes to catch particular radio program is difficult.

b. Audio-tapes

Audio cassette players are the simplest and cheapest way to provide listening practise opportunities for students in classroom. Because nearly all general courses books these days have accompanying audio cassettes, a cassette players has become an essential tool in the language classroom.

c. Video

The use of video to help develop listening skill has received much attention since it began to appear regularly in language classes in the mid 1970s. The obvious contextualization of language provided by video, made it a popular medium in non-English-speaking contries.

d. Computer-Assisted Language Learning

Since the 1960s, computers have been used in language education. During this forty-year period, the use computers could be divided into three main stages : behaviorist computer-assisted language learning ( CALL); communicative CALL; and integrative CALL (Warschaver and Healey 1998). Each of these stages corressponds to the available tehnological and the prevailing pedagogical theories.

(Source : Second Language Listening : Theory and Practise. John  Flowerdew. Pages 165-178)

3) What part of listening ability we can develop by using technology?

1. a. Hearing the sounds

By using technology, for example radio, we would have an access to know how native speakers pronounced their words. Therefore, it would help us to be able to distinguish between two similar words, like, think and thing,etc.

b. Understanding intonation and stress

The English system of stress, intonation and rhythm, though perhaps less obvious difficult than problems of the actual sounds, can interfere with the foreign learners proper understanding of spoken English.

c. Predicting

If the listener can make a guess as to the sort of thing that is going to be said next, we will be much more likely to perceive it and understand it well. We may even be enabled to do without altogether

d. Understanding colloquial vocabulary

Much of the vocabulary used in colloquial speech may already be known to the foreign learner; but this does not mean that we are familiar with it. Therefore, technology help us to be more familiar with vocabulary in colloquial speech, for example by using video.

e. Understanding different accents

We can differentiate various accents spoken by native speakers, for example by watching movie. Movie provides different people for different accents.

2. By using media ( in this case VCR or Video Cassette Recorder ) students learn to listen and grasp meaning from English spoken at a normal or near-normal speed ; they also are introduced to a variety of different accents, speech patterns and voice types.]

(source: Taken from Forum Magazine volume XXIV number 2, April 1986, Pages 24-34; Article: The VCR in the EFL Classroom, written by Donald’ E Hall)

3. By listening to the radio especially news broadcast, the students could enrich their vocabulary. For example they could get:

a. Common vocabulary

In news broadcasts, there are certain words that are frequently used. In VOA special English for instance about 1500 words are often repeated in several broad categories such as polities, economy, science in technology, military matters.

b. Proper names

c. Acronyms.

(source: Taken from Forum Magazine volume XXIV number 2, April  1997 Pages 47-48, Article: Using VOA News Items, Written by Hu  Xioaqiong)

Telaga warna

December 16, 2009

Long time ago there was a kingdom in West Java. The kingdom was ruled by king. People called their king His Majesty Prabu.

Prabu was a kind and wise king. No wonder if that country was prosperous. There is no hunger in this kingdom.

It was a very happy condition. But it was a pity that prabu and his queen had not got any children. It made the royal couple very very sad. Some old men and women who has respected by Prabu suggested the king to adopt a child. But Prabu and the queen did not agree. ” No, thank you. But for us, our own daughter or son is better than adopted children.

The queen was very sad. She often cried. That was why Prabu decided to go. He went to the jungle. There he prayed to God. Everyday he begged for a child. His dream come true. A few months later, the queen got pregnant. All people in the kingdom felt happy. They sent many presents to the palace to express their happiness.

Nine months later a princess was born. People sent their presents again as a gift to a little princess. This baby grew as a baby grew as a beautiful teenager then.

Prabu and Queen loved their daughter so much. They gave whatever she wanted. It made Princess a very spoiled girl. When her wish couldn’t be realized, she became very angry. She even sad bad things often. A true princess would not do that. Eventhough the princess behave badly, her parents loved her, so did the people in that kingdom.

Day by day, the princess grew more beautiful. No girls could not compare with her. In a few days, Princess would be 17 years old. So, people of that kingdom went to palace. They bought many presents for her. Their presents gift were very beautiful. Prabu collected the presents. There were really many presents. Then prabu stored them in a building. Sometimes he could take them to give to his people.

Prabu only took some gold and jewels. Then she brought them to the goldsmith. ” Please make a beautiful necklace for my daughter,” said Prabu. ” My pleasure, Your Majesty,” the goldsmith replied. The goldsmith worked with all his heart and his ability. He wanted to create the most beautiful necklace in the world because he loved his princess.

The birthday came. People gathered in the palace field. When Prabu and queen appeared, people welcomed them happily. Prabu and his wife waved to their beloved people.

Cheers were louder and louder when the princess appeared with her fabulous pretty face. Everybody admired her beauty. Prabu got up from his chair. A lady gave him a small and glamorous pillow. A wonderful necklace was on it. Prabu took that necklace. ” My beloved daughter, today I gave this necklace to you. This necklace is a gift from people in this country. They love so much. They presented it for you to express their happiness, because you have a growing to a woman. Please, wear this necklace,” said Prabu.

Princess accepted the necklace. She looked at the necklace in a glance. ” I don’t want to accepted it! It is ugly!” shouted the princess. Then she threw the necklace. The beautiful necklace was broken. The gold and jewels were spread out on the floor.

Everybody could not say anything. They never thought that their beloved princess would did that cruel thing. Nobody spoke. In their silence people heard the queen crying.

Then there was a miracle. Earth was crying. Suddenly, from the under ground, a spring emerged. It made a pool of water. The place was getting full. Soon the place become a big lake. The lake sank all of the kingdom.

Nowdays the water on that lake is not as full as before. There is only a small lake now. People called the lake ” Talaga Warna”. It is mean ” Lake of Colour”. It is located in Puncak, West Java. On a bright day, the lake is full of colour. So beautiful and amazing. These colors come from shadow of forests, plants, flowers, and sky around the lake. But some people said that the colours are from the princess’s necklace, which spreads at the bottom of the lake.

Mantu’s Little Elephant

December 14, 2009

Little Mantu lived in a village deep in the jungle where elephants helped the men with their work. These elephants were so big and strong. They could lift up the heaviest logs with their trunks and toss them high in the air.

Now, Mantu had an elephant of his very own. His name was Opie. He was just a baby and Mantu loved him very much. Mantu whispered to Opie ear that someday he would become the biggest, strongest and bravest elephant in the jungle. The other elephants heard this. They began to laugh and made rude noises with their trunks. ” We are so big and tall, but you are so small. You are nothing at all,” said one of the big elephants.

Mantu looked up at the huge of elephant with am mishievous glint in his eye. ” You are so tall and can see far away. We can see what is happening down here in the jungle. In fact, we would be the first to see any slithering snakes that may be danger. ” After hearing the word snakes, the elephants screeched and off they gwents thundering in fright.

” Did I say there were snakes?” giggled Mantu. ” No, I don not think so,” smiled Opie. Mantu then climbed upon his little frield’s back and went to the village to tell everyone about the foolish elephant.

The Condition of Street Children in Indonesia

December 6, 2009

I think street children are the same with us because they are also God creations. They have parents, family, and friends in their life. But the different is that they must work hard in their childhood as an adult. They must responsible for their family needed, too. They work in the street as ” street singers “, and beggars. They work from morning until afternoon. Some of them study in the school but some are not, the most cause for them is that they do not have money especially in a big city like Jakarta because the school fee is so expensive that make them stop going to school.

In my opinion, that thing is not fear enough for them. It is usually happen in the low family lines which have not enough money to fulfill their needed. The children of this family be forced to work because they want to help their parents economy problems. I think they are also have dreams to reach so it is not fear to delay or stop their dream only because they did not enough money to pay school fee. They should go and study in school same like other that are luckier that them.

I hope our government must pay attention to this problem. They should make a ” free ” school for the children whom parents are not wealthy to pay school fee. They must fix this problem correctly and appropriately so the number of street children will be decreased. And their parents will allow them to go to school and it is their responsibility to make their children dream come true.